Acquired brain injury (ABI) as a "silent epidemic". The term "silent epidemic" is used to characterize several undermining aspects related to ABI. On the one hand, the consequences are sometimes not visible in the short term and, on the other hand, a misperception of the level of prevalence and unfamiliarity of society with the long-term consequences in general.
A brain trauma, regardless of the cause, is not an event or a final endpoint but rather a starting point of a complex dynamic disease process. Injury of the brain initiates a multitude of cascades affecting multiple organ systems, disease-causing and disease-accelerating.
What form this will take, how extensive or severe the consequences will be per individual, depends on type of injury, severity of injury, age, gender, education, nutrition, prior brain traumata, among others.
As a result, symptom patterns can vary from one individual to another, making it challenging to diagnose, understand and treat if one relies only on symptoms. Additionally, the absence of objective evidence of symptoms does not mean that there is no damage. After all, complaints depend on brain and cognitive reserve that also varies from one individual to another, as this depends for example on age, education and intelligence.
A traumatic brain injury, is not only the most common brain injury, but also one of the most heterogeneous.
A traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to neurological, physical, emotional and neuropsychological changes and deficits that depend on the severity of the injury. However, it should be emphasised that the severity classifications are being used do not in themselves predict the extent of injury or resulting dysfunction.
Although all types of TBI share common features, children's immature brains respond differently to trauma than adult brains.
Toxic Brain Injury
Acute toxicity occurs almost immediately (seconds/minutes/hours/days) after an exposure. An acute exposure is usually a single dose or a series of doses within a 24-hour period.
Inhalation of toxic substances can occur in the work environment, not only as a result of an unanticipated incident but also by being in a work environment where people are unaware or insufficiently aware of the dangers of the substances present in the air. But one can also be exposed to toxic substances in the residential environment if one is near industry, an airport, or your home was built on an old industrial site that has not been remediated.
Toxic damage to the nervous system results from:
Inflammatory Brain Injury
Among the various pathological events that can lead to neuroinflammation are viral or bacterial invasions. HSV-1 infection causes brain damage via inflammation, mainly in the temporal and temporofrontal regions. Other brain regions can also be damaged.
When HSV-1 infects plasma membrane water-transporting proteins, it will lead to delayed removal of cerebrospinal fluid and degradation products. This slower disposal can also lead to the damaging build-up of β-amyloid plaques, which in turn can cause neurodegenerative diseases. A disrupted glymphatic system will exacerbate inflammation by suppressing cytokine discharge. This increases the number of cytokines present which in turn worsens neuroinflammation. Together with the accumulation of metabolic wastes a vicious cycle is created that maintains neuroinflammation. Inflammation disturbs sleep that will also fuel inflammation. As a result, acute inflammation will evolve into chronic inflammation that is the primary cause of a wide spectrum of autoimmune diseases, such as neurosarcoidosis, multiple sclerosis.
Blast Induced Brain Injury
An explosion in an open space, causes a pressure wave consisting of a momentary increase in overpressure caused, followed by a negative pressure phase, before returning to ambient pressure.
The extent of brain and body injuries caused by the blast wave depends mainly on five factors:
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
People with a traumatic brain injury, regardless of severity, can face a huge variety of potentially stressful events.
The ability to adapt to this is determined by multiple factors.
Author: Daniel Dumalin | Date: 28/08/2023 | Last update: 21/09/2023